Etymology is a fascinating topic. Looking closer at the origin of words often yields surprising and interesting connections between languages and countries, forgotten stories or fun anecdotes. There are multiple sources for etymological data, and most of the time, using specialized books is a safe bet. The issue is that they are usually dedicated to one language, and it’s close to impossible to extract the data in a format which allows manipulation by programs.
There is an alternative though: Wiktionary. It is not perfect and suffers from the following drawbacks:
- Information about some words can be missing or incomplete
- Different editions offer various degrees of exhaustiveness
- It is still not trivial to extract the data in a nice format (more on that later)
But it offers very nice benefits as well:
- It is possible to parse the dumps (although not as easy as it could)
- It is possible to combine multiple editions to get more complete etymological data (e.g.: French and English dumps)
- It is constantly evolving and freely accessible
I often use Wiktinary from the website to get more insight about some words, but it is not always optimal: it can be time-consuming to follow the links, difficult to know if you missed anything, and hard to answer some questions. In particular:
- What is the “etymological” distance between two words, and how are they connected? (according to Wiktionary data)
- Given a word in a source language (e.g.:
Buchfrom German), what is the closest word in another target language (e.g.: in English it would be
- Can we identify the subset of words from a source language which is very closely connected to words from a target language? (e.g. by direct inheritance)?
- Could we visualize the graph of etymological connections from a source word until a given distance?
In the rest of this article, I’d like to present a work-in-progress project called wgraph, which I have been developing recently. It allows to parse the content of Wiktionary dumps in multiple languages (currently French and English are well supported and more are on the way), to extract a graph of etymological relationships between words. Here are a few examples of possible connections:
- German word ‘Buch’ cognates with English word ‘book’
- English word ‘table’ inherits from Middle English words ‘table’, ‘tabel’, ‘tabil’ and ‘tabul’
- French word ‘chaise’ is borrowed from Old French ‘chaiere’, and cognates with English word ‘chair’
Parsing the data
The parsing stage takes as input one or multiple dumps, and produces a mapping between
source words, and multiple references as found in the specific pages from Wiktionary, in the
etymology section. Using
wgraph, this can be performed as follows:
$ parse enwiki-articles/enwiktionary-latest-pages-articles.xml
(Note that you can input a compressed version of the dumps as well, either in
This will produce a file named
graph.tsv containing one word per line, alongside its references. The first few lines look like:
lire lira|etyl| lira|borrowed|it *lekʷs-|mention|ine-pro lies|cognate|nl ... encyclopédie encyclique|lien| encyclopaedia|etyl| encyclopaedia|mention|la ... manga 漫|mention|ltc manga|mention|pt 漫画|borrowed|ja man + -ga|suffix|zza ...
Each line starts with the word (e.g.:
manga) and then follows a tab-separated list of references. Each reference is a tuple of
kind (kind of relationship with the origin word, e.g.: borrowed from, inherited from, etc.) and
origin (optional, since not all origins are specified in the data).
And this is all we need start exploring the data and answer interesting questions!
Etymological summary visualization
Once we have a graph of “etymological” connections between words, one of the simplest things we can do is to visualize the neighborhood of a given word. This can be performed using the
summary command provided by
$ summary graph.tsv Buch Graph written into: wgraph_Buch
We can also look deeper in the graph:
$ summary graph.tsv candidate --max-depth 2 Graph written into: wgraph_Buch
Interestingly enough, the ‘candidates’ referred to the “Roman candidates wearing bleached white togas as a symbol of purity at a public forum” (source: Wiktionary). This explains why the word ‘candidate’ is related to ‘white’, ‘candide’, ‘blank’ and even the ‘elves’.
Note that by default, up to 50 words will be included in the graph, to not overload it too much.
It is also possible to group the nodes by origin using the
$ summary graph.tsv petrol --max-depth 2 --group-by-origin Graph written into: wgraph_Buch
Now we know that pretrol literally means “oil from stones”: ol + petra (the stone).
As a last example, let’s explore the neighborhood of ‘truie’ a French word used to designate the female of the pork. This word has a curious origin…
$ summary graph.tsv truie --max-depth 2 --group-by-origin Graph written into: wgraph_Buch
You can see mentions of the word “Troja”, the famous city, where the “Trojan Horse” was used as a subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the city of Troy during the war. And this is where we think this ‘truie’ comes from. The “Trojan Horse” gave its name to a way to prepare (or grill) the pork called: “Porka de Troja”, and they ‘truie’ in French.
Distance between two words
Another simple application of the graph is to compute the size of the shortest path between two words. This can be achieved using the
distance command provided by
$ distance graph.tsv Buch book Distance: 1 Start: Buch > Cognates with book (English)
$ distance graph.tsv Buch beech Distance: 5 Start: Buch > Cognates with book (English) > Cognates with boek (Dutch) > Cognates with bog (Danish) > Inherited from boc (Old Irish (to 900)) > Mention beech (English)
$ distance graph.tsv camaraderie chambre Distance: 3 Start: camaraderie > Mention comrade (English) > Mention chamber (English) > Inherited from chambre (Middle English (1100-1500))
$ distance graph.tsv camarade chambre Distance: 2 Start: camarade > None chambrée (French) > None chambre (French)
You probably noticed that
kind are not always available. This is mainly caused by:
- Data in French dumps are not formatted in an easily parsable format, and most information needs to be extracted from links (e.g.:
''[[word]]'''') as well as the context, and the parser from
wgraphis not yet smart enough to do this in a lot of cases.
- Sometimes the information is not available at all.
Also note that this command only finds one possible path, but it happens that multiple paths of the same length link two words of the graph. A possible improvement would be to find all possible paths between two words, which would probably gives some nice insight! (It could also be visualized as a graph!)
Closest word in a target language
Let’s say you are learning a new language (e.g.: German) and while learning a new word, you are looking for a way to “connect” it to some words you already know. One way we could leverage our graph of words is to find a close word in a language you already know! This is what the command
closest is doing:
$ closest graph.tsv buchstabieren en Start: buchstabieren > None Buchstabe (unknown origin) > Mention bookstaff (English)
The German word “buchstabieren” (or “to spell” in English) literally means “to stab the letters on the Buch/book/beech”. The connection with “beech” comes from the fact that people used to use “beech” tree as a material to create the tablets to write.
$ closest graph.tsv hospital fr Start: hospital > Cognates with hôpital (French)
This one was pretty easy…
$ closest graph.tsv therme en Start: therme > Etymology θερμός (unknown origin) > Cognates with wearm (Old English (ca. 450-1100)) > Cognates with formus (Latin) > Cognates with warm (English)
Interesting to know that “therme” (name given to the ancient Roman baths) connects to “warm” in English (very indirectly, but we find this idea of “warm water”).
$ closest graph.tsv schön en Start: schön > None sheen (unknown origin) > Cognates with show (English)
$ closest graph.tsv Welt fr Start: Welt > Inherited from weralt (Old High German (ca. 750-1050)) > Mention world (English) > Cognates with verd (Norwegian Nynorsk) > Cognates with vert (French)
Some connections are pretty far-fetched, and we would need to dig in the original data to understand why! And this is where it can get exciting to do some manual research!
What are the easiest words to learn in a language?
As a final application, and as a result of our ability to compute the minimum distance between two words in different languages, we can try to identify the easiest sub-set of a language you can learn! This works as follows:
- Specify the target language (e.g.: German)
- Specify languages you already know (e.g.: French and English)
easiest command will try to find a set of German words which is very close from words in either English or French. These words should be easier to memorize because they will probably resemble words you already know.
$ easiest graph.tsv ======================================== > 1 ======================================== * personell * Republik * munizipal * Provokateur * Strauß * Beispiel * Tupperware * Karosserie * maritim * hypoallergen * Etappe * Finanzier * Pansen * bekommen * Feuer * blockieren * robbe * kidnappen * Flakon * lukrativ * eskortieren * universell * Bravour * Mittwoch * grotesk * jetzt * positiv ...
At the moment it is not possible to specify other languages than French, English and German, but it will probably be in the future.
There is probably much more we can do using this data, and this is only the beginning, I already find the project useful to get insight about the origin of some words, but it is still rough around the edges. In the following weeks I intend to improve
wgraph in the following ways:
- Improve information extraction from Wiktionary dumps (especially for the French edition), this should have a direct impact on the results of all sub-commands presented above.
- Support more editions to make the dataset more complete (German is next)
- Find more interesting applications and visualizations ideas!